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์ •์ƒ์ธ ๋Œ€์ƒ์œผ๋กœ ๊ธฐ๋Šฅ์„ฑ ์ธ์†”๊ณผ ๊ฒฐํ•ฉํ•œ ๋ณดํ˜ธํ˜• ์–‘๋ง์ด ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์— ๋ฏธ์น˜๋Š” ์˜ํ–ฅ : ์˜ˆ๋น„ ์‹คํ—˜ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ

Abstract

PURPOSE:

This study examined the ability of experimental socks combined with a functional insole to reduce plantar foot pressure in healthy subjects.

METHODS:

The study enrolled 15 subjects. An in-shoe measurement device was used to measure the peak plantar pressure while walking. The peak forefoot, midfoot, and hindfoot plantar pressure data were collected under two conditions: the subjects were wearing their own socks and while they were wearing the experimental socks. The paired t-test was used to determine the differences in peak plantar pressure between the two conditions at all three positions.

RESULTS:

Wearing the experimental socks resulted in a significantly higher peak plantar pressure in the medial forefoot and midfoot areas than wearing oneโ€™s own socks (p<.05), and also in significantly lower peak plantar pressure in the medial and lateral hindfoot (p<.05). However, there were no significant differences of peak plantar pressure between experimental and own socks in middle and lateral forefoot (p>.05).

CONCLUSION:

The experimental socks combined with a functional insole decreased plantar pressure in the hindfoot and supported the medial longitudinal arch. However, it is necessary to change the design and material of the forefoot area in the functional insole to prevent foot ulcer at that location in people with diabetes mellitus.

I. ์„œ๋ก 

๋‹น๋‡จ๋ณ‘(Diabetes mellitus: DM) ํ™˜์ž์˜ ์•ฝ 1/3์€ ๋ง์ดˆ์‹ ๊ฒฝ๋ณ‘์ฆ, ํ˜ˆ๊ด€์งˆํ™˜, ๊ธฐํ˜•, ์™ธ์ƒ๊ณผ ๊ฐ™์€ ๋‹น๋‡จ ๋ฐœ(diabetic foot)์˜ ์ฃผ์š” ์œ„ํ—˜์š”์†Œ์— ๋…ธ์ถœ๋˜์–ด ์žˆ๋‹ค(Boulton ๋“ฑ, 2004; Reiber ๋“ฑ, 1999; Han๊ณผ Park, 2014). ๋‹น๋‡จ ๋ฐœ ๊ด€๋ฆฌ ๋ถ€์กฑ์œผ๋กœ ์ธํ•ด ๋‹น๋‡จ๋ณ‘ ์ธ๊ตฌ์˜ 2~7% ์ •๋„๊ฐ€ ํ™œ์„ฑํ™”๋œ ์กฑ๋ถ€ ๊ถค์–‘(foot ulcer)์„ ๊ฒฝํ—˜ํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์œผ๋กœ ์ถ”์ •๋˜๋ฉฐ ์ด์ค‘ ์•ฝ 3%๊ฐ€ ์ ˆ๋‹จ์„ ๊ฒฝํ—˜ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ๋œ๋‹ค(Kim ๋“ฑ, 2014). ๋‹น๋‡จ ํ™˜์ž๋“ค์˜ ๋ฐœ ํ•ฉ๋ณ‘์ฆ์„ ์˜ˆ๋ฐฉํ•˜๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•ด ์ผ๋ฐ˜์ ์ธ ์กฑ๋ถ€์˜ํ•™์  ํ‰๊ฐ€์™€ ์น˜๋ฃŒ๋ฟ๋งŒ ์•„๋‹ˆ๋ผ ์ž๊ธฐ๊ด€๋ฆฌ๋ฒ•์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ํ™˜์ž๊ต์œก, ํ”ผ๋ถ€์™€ ๋ฐœํ†ฑ๊ด€๋ฆฌ, ์ ์ ˆํ•œ ์‹ ๋ฐœ๊ณผ ๋ณดํ˜ธ์šฉ ์–‘๋ง ์ฐฉ์šฉ๊ณผ ๊ฐ™์€ ๋‹ค์–‘ํ•œ ๋น„์ˆ˜์ˆ ์  ๋ฐฉ๋ฒ•๋“ค์„ ์ˆ˜ํ–‰ํ•œ๋‹ค(Mayfield ๋“ฑ, 2004; McInnes ๋“ฑ, 2011). ๋”ฐ๋ผ์„œ ์‚ฌํšŒ์ ์œผ๋กœ ๋‹น๋‡จ ์กฑ๋ถ€ ๊ถค์–‘์œผ๋กœ ์ธํ•œ ๊ฐœ์ธ ๋ฐ ๊ฑด๊ฐ•๊ด€๋ฆฌ ๋น„์šฉ์ด ๋ง‰๋Œ€ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์ง€์ถœ๋˜๊ณ  ์žˆ๋‹ค. ๋น„๋ก ์‹ ๊ฒฝ๋ณ‘์ฆ์ด ๊ถค์–‘ ๋ฐœ๋ณ‘์— ์ฃผ์š”ํ•œ ์š”์ธ์ด์ง€๋งŒ, ๊ถค์–‘์€ ์ผ๋ฐ˜์ ์œผ๋กœ ์‹ ๋ฐœ๊ณผ ์ธ์†”์—์„œ ํ”ํžˆ ์ธ์‹ ํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์—†๋Š” ๊ฒฝ๋ฏธํ•œ ์กฐ์ง ์†์ƒ์œผ๋กœ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ ๋ฐœ์ƒ๋œ๋‹ค(Macfarlane ๋“ฑ, 1997). ๊ทธ๋Ÿฌ๋ฏ€๋กœ ๋‹น๋‡จ ํ™˜์ž์—๊ฒŒ๋Š” ์‹ ๋ฐœ๊ณผ ์ธ์†”์€ ์ค‘์š”ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์—ฌ๊ฒจ์ง€๋ฉฐ ์ˆ˜์ • ๊ฐ€๋Šฅํ•œ ๋ฐœ ๊ถค์–‘์˜ ์œ„ํ—˜ ์š”์†Œ๋กœ ๊ฐ„์ฃผ๋œ๋‹ค๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์€ ๋‹น์—ฐํ•˜๋‹ค.
์ถฉ๊ฒฉ, ์••๋ ฅ, ๋งˆ์ฐฐ ๋ฐ ์ „๋‹จ๋ ฅ(shear force)๊ณผ ๊ฐ™์€ ๋ฐœ์— ์ž‘์šฉํ•˜๋Š” ๋‹ค์–‘ํ•œ ์ŠคํŠธ๋ ˆ์Šค๋Š” ๋ณดํ–‰ ์‹œ ๋ชธ๋ฌด๊ฒŒ์™€ ์ด๋Ÿฌํ•œ ์ŠคํŠธ๋ ˆ์Šค๋“ค์ด ํ•จ๊ป˜ ์ž‘์šฉํ•˜์—ฌ ๊ฐ๊ฐ์ด ์—†๋Š” ๋‹น๋‡จ ๋ฐœ ๊ตฌ์กฐ๋ฅผ ์†์ƒ์‹œํ‚จ๋‹ค(Garrow ๋“ฑ, 2005). ๋ณดํ–‰ ์‹œ ๋ชธ๋ฌด๊ฒŒ์— ์˜ํ•œ ์ถฉ๊ฒฉ์€ ๋ฐœ์ด ์ง€๋ฉด์— ์ฒ˜์Œ ์ ‘์ด‰ ํ•  ๋•Œ ์‹ ์ฒด์—์„œ ๋ฐœ์ƒํ•˜๋Š” ์ถฉ๊ฒฉ๋Ÿ‰์ด๋‹ค. ์ด ์ถฉ๊ฒฉ๋Ÿ‰์€ ์‹ ์ฒด์˜ ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ๊ตฌ์กฐ๋ฌผ๋ฟ๋งŒ ์•„๋‹ˆ๋ผ ๋ฐœ์˜ ๋‹ค์–‘ํ•œ ๋ผˆ์™€ ์—ฐ๋ถ€์กฐ์ง์˜ ์žฅ์• ๋ฅผ ์ผ์œผํ‚ค๋Š” ์š”์ธ์ด๋‹ค(Whittle, 1999). ๋†’์€ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ์˜ ์••๋ ฅ์€ ๋ฐœ ๊ถค์–‘ ๋ฐœ์ƒ๊ณผ ์—ฐ๊ด€๋˜์–ด์žˆ์„ ๋ฟ ์•„๋‹ˆ๋ผ(Frykberg, 1998) ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์„ ์ค„์ด๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์€ ๋ฐœ ์ƒ์ฒ˜ ์น˜์œ ์— ์ค‘์š”ํ•œ ์š”์†Œ์ด๋‹ค(Armstrong ๋“ฑ, 2001; Boulton, 2004). ๋งˆ์ฐฐ์€ ํ”ผ๋ถ€์— ์ž‘์šฉํ•˜๊ณ  ๋ฏธ๋„๋Ÿผ์— ์ €ํ•ญํ•˜๋Š” ์ •์  ๋˜๋Š” ๋™์ ์ธ ํž˜์ด๋‹ค. ์ด ํž˜์€ ์ ‘์ด‰ ๋ถ€์œ„์™€ ํ‰ํ–‰ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์ž‘์šฉํ•˜๋ฉฐ ๋ฐœ์ด ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ์ด๋‚˜ ์‹ ๋ฐœ ๋‚ด๋ถ€๋ฅผ ๋”ฐ๋ผ ์›€์ง์ž„ ์‹œ์ž‘ ์ „์— ์ €ํ•ญ๋ ฅ์„ ์ œ๊ณตํ•œ๋‹ค. ํ”ผ๋ถ€ ํ‘œ๋ฉด์— ๊ตญ์†Œ์ ์ธ ๋งˆ์ฐฐ์€ ํ”ผ๋ถ€ ๋ฐ•๋ฆฌ(exfoliation)๋ฅผ ์œ ๋„ํ•˜์ง€๋งŒ, ๋งˆ์ฐฐ์ด ์ง€์†๋˜๋ฉด ์—ด์ด ๋ฐœ์ƒ๋˜์–ด ํ™๋ฐ˜๊ณผ ๋ฌผ์ง‘์„ ์ผ์œผํ‚ฌ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค(Garrow ๋“ฑ, 2005). ๋‹จ์ง€ ๋ฐœ์˜ ์™ธ๋ถ€ ์ ‘์ด‰๋ฉด์—๋งŒ ๋ฐœ์ƒ๋˜๋Š” ๋งˆ์ฐฐ๊ณผ๋Š” ๋‹ฌ๋ฆฌ ์ „๋‹จ๋ ฅ์€ ์กฐ์ง์˜ ์ ‘์ด‰๋ฉด๊ณผ ์กฐ์ง ๋‚ด์˜ ๊นŠ์€ ๊ณณ์— ์˜ํ–ฅ์„ ๋ฏธ์น˜๋Š” ์ •์ ์ธ ์ƒํƒœ์—์„œ ์„ค๋ช…ํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋Š” ์ŠคํŠธ๋ ˆ์Šค์ด๋‹ค. ์˜ˆ๋ฅผ ๋“ค์–ด, ๋ฐœ ๋’ค๊ฟˆ์น˜๊ฐ€ ์ง€๋ฉด์— ์ฒ˜์Œ ์ ‘์ด‰ ํ•  ๋•Œ, ๋ฐœ๊ณผ ์ง€๋ฉด ์‚ฌ์ด์˜ ๋งˆ์ฐฐ์€ ๋ฐœ์— ๋Œ€ํ•ด ํ›„๋ฐฉ์œผ๋กœ ์ž‘์šฉํ•˜๋Š” ์ˆ˜ํ‰ ํž˜(์ „๋‹จ)์„ ๋ฐœ์ƒ ์‹œํ‚ค๋ฉฐ ์ด๋Ÿฌํ•œ ํž˜์ด ๋ฐ˜๋ณต์ ์œผ๋กœ ๋ฐœ์ƒํ•˜๋ฉด ๋ฌผ์ง‘๊ณผ ๊ฐ™์€ ํ”ผ๋ถ€์™€ ๊นŠ์€ ์กฐ์ง์˜ ์ง์ ‘์ ์ธ ์†์ƒ์„ ์ผ์œผํ‚ค๊ฑฐ๋‚˜ ๊ตณ์€์‚ด ํ˜•์„ฑ ๋ฐ ํ˜ˆ์•ก ์ˆœํ™˜ ์žฅ์• ์™€ ๊ฐ™์€ ๊ฐ„์ ‘์ ์ธ ์†์ƒ์„ ์ผ์œผํ‚ฌ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค(Lord์™€ Hosein, 2000).
๋ฐœ์— ์ž‘์šฉํ•˜๋Š” ์ŠคํŠธ๋ ˆ์Šค๋ฅผ ์ค„์ด๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•ด ์‹ ๋ฐœ์€ ๋งค์šฐ ์ค‘์š”ํ•œ ์š”์†Œ์ด๋‹ค(Bus ๋“ฑ, 2016). ์šฐ์ˆ˜ํ•œ ์ถฉ๊ฒฉ ํก์ˆ˜๋ ฅ์„ ์ง€๋‹Œ ์‹ ๋ฐœ ์ฐฝ(sole)์˜ ์žฌ๋ฃŒ๋Š” ๋ณดํ–‰ ์‹œ ๋ชธ๋ฌด๊ฒŒ์— ์˜ํ•œ ์ถฉ๊ฒฉ์„ ์ค„์ด๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•ด ์Šคํฌ์ธ  ์‹ ๋ฐœ, ์ผ๋ฐ˜ ๊ตฌ๋‘ ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ์ฒ˜๋ฐฉ๋œ ๋งž์ถคํ˜• ์‹ ๋ฐœ์— ์‚ฌ์šฉ๋œ๋‹ค. ๋งŽ์€ ์น˜๋ฃŒ์šฉ ์‹ ๋ฐœ๋ฅ˜(therapeutic in-shoe)์˜ ์ฃผ๋œ ๋ชฉ์ ์€ ๊ธฐ๋ฆฝ ํ˜น์€ ๋ณดํ–‰ ์‹œ ๋ฐœ์˜ ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ๋ถ€์œ„๋กœ ์ฒด์ค‘์ด๋™์„ ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ํ•˜์—ฌ ๋ฐœ์˜ ์••๋ ฅ์„ ์žฌ ๋ถ„์‚ฐ์‹œํ‚ค๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค(Bus ๋“ฑ, 2016). ํ•˜์ง€๋งŒ ์‹ ๋ฐœ๊ณผ ์ธ์†”์€ ์‹ค์™ธ์—์„œ๋งŒ ๋ฐœ์˜ ์••๋ ฅ์„ ์žฌ ๋ถ„์‚ฐ ์‹œํ‚ฌ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค๋Š” ๋‹จ์ ์ด ์žˆ๋‹ค. ๋”ฐ๋ผ์„œ ๋ณธ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์—์„œ๋Š” ์ด๋Ÿฌํ•œ ๋‹จ์ ์„ ๋ณด์™„ํ•˜๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•ด ์‹ค๋‚ด์—์„œ๋„ ๋ฐœ์˜ ์••๋ ฅ์„ ์žฌ ๋ถ„์‚ฐ์‹œํ‚ฌ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋Š” ์–‘๋ง์„ ๊ณ ์•ˆํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค.
์–‘๋ง(socks)์€ ๋ฐœ ๊ถค์–‘ ๋ฐœ์ƒ ์œ„ํ—˜์ด ์žˆ๋Š” ๋ฐœ์— ์ฒซ ๋ฒˆ์งธ ๋ฐฉ์–ด์„ ์„ ์ œ๊ณต ํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๊ธฐ ๋•Œ๋ฌธ์— ์ƒ์—…์ ์ธ ๊ด€์ ์—์„œ ๋‹ค์–‘ํ•œ ๋‹น๋‡จ์šฉ ์–‘๋ง์ด ๊ตญ๋‚ดยท์™ธ์—์„œ ์ƒ์šฉํ™” ๋˜๊ณ  ์žˆ๋‹ค. ์ด์ „ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ๋“ค์—์„œ ํŒจ๋”ฉ ์ฒ˜๋ฆฌ ๋œ ์–‘๋ง(padded hosiery)์ด ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์ตœ๋Œ€ ์••๋ ฅ์„ ์ค„์ผ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค๋Š” ์ง์ ‘์ ์ธ ์ฆ๊ฑฐ(Veves ๋“ฑ, 1989; Veves ๋“ฑ, 1992)์™€ ๋ฌผ์ง‘ ๋ฐœ์ƒ์„ ์ค„์ž„์œผ๋กœ์จ ๋งˆ์ฐฐ๋ ฅ๊ณผ ์ „๋‹จ๋ ฅ์„ ์ค„์ผ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค๋Š” ๊ฐ„์ ‘์ ์ธ ์ฆ๊ฑฐ๊ฐ€ ์žˆ๋‹ค(Herring๊ณผ Richie, 1990). ๋น„๋ก ์ด์ „ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ๋“ค์—์„œ ์ผ๋ฐ˜ ์–‘๋ง๊ณผ ๋น„๊ตํ–ˆ์„ ๋•Œ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์ „์ฒด ํŒจ๋”ฉ ํ˜น์€ ์–‘๋ง์˜ ๋ฉด์‚ฌ ์กฐ์ง ๊ตฌ์„ฑ์„ ๋‹ฌ๋ฆฌํ•˜์—ฌ ๋‹น๋‡จ ํ™˜์ž๋ฅผ ์œ„ํ•œ ์–‘๋ง์„ ๊ฐœ๋ฐœํ•˜์—ฌ ๋น„๊ตํ•˜์˜€์ง€๋งŒ(Blackwell ๋“ฑ, 2002; Garrow ๋“ฑ, 2005; Veves ๋“ฑ, 1989; Veves ๋“ฑ, 1990), ์•„์ง๊นŒ์ง€ ํšจ๊ณผ์ ์œผ๋กœ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์„ ์ค„์ผ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋Š” ๊ธฐ๋Šฅ์„ฑ ์ธ์†”์„ ๊ฒฐํ•ฉํ•œ ์–‘๋ง์€ ์—†๋Š” ์‹ค์ •์ด๋‹ค. ๋‹น๋‡จ๋ณ‘์€ ์ตœ๊ทผ ๋“ค์–ด ํ•œ๊ตญ์„ ํฌํ•จํ•œ ์•„์‹œ์•„๊ถŒ ๋‚˜๋ผ์—์„œ ๋ฐœ๋ณ‘๋ฅ ์ด ๋†’์•„์ง€๊ณ  ์žˆ๋‹ค. ์ด๋“ค ๋‚˜๋ผ๋“ค์€ ์‹ค์™ธ๋ฟ๋งŒ ์•„๋‹ˆ๋ผ ์‹ค๋‚ด์—์„œ ์ฃผ๋กœ ์ƒํ™œ์„ ํ•˜๊ธฐ ๋•Œ๋ฌธ์— ๋‹จ์ˆœํžˆ ์–‘๋ง์— ํŒจ๋”ฉ์„ ํ•˜๊ฑฐ๋‚˜ ๋ฉด์‚ฌ ๊ตฌ์กฐ๋ฅผ ๋‹ฌ๋ฆฌํ•ด์„œ๋Š” ํšจ๊ณผ์ ์œผ๋กœ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์„ ์ค„์ด๊ฑฐ๋‚˜ ๋ถ„์‚ฐ์‹œํ‚ฌ ์ˆ˜ ์—†๋‹ค. ๋”ฐ๋ผ์„œ ๋ณธ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์—์„œ๋Š” ๊ธฐ๋Šฅ์„ฑ ์ธ์†”์„ ๊ฒฐํ•ฉํ•œ ์‹œ์ž‘ํ’ˆ ์–‘๋ง์„ ๊ฐœ๋ฐœํ•˜์—ฌ ๊ธฐ์กด ์–‘๋ง๊ณผ ๋น„๊ตํ•˜์—ฌ ๋ณดํ–‰ ์‹œ ์ตœ๋Œ€ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์„ ๋น„๊ตํ•˜๊ณ ์ž ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ๋ณธ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์˜ ๊ฐ€์„ค์€ ๋‹ค์Œ๊ณผ ๊ฐ™์ด ์„ค์ •ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ๋ณดํ–‰ ์‹œ ๊ฐœ๋ฐœ๋œ ์‹คํ—˜์šฉ ์–‘๋ง ์ฐฉ์šฉ์ด ๋Œ€์ƒ์ž ๋ณธ์ธ์˜ ์–‘๋ง์„ ์ฐฉ์šฉํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฒƒ ๋ณด๋‹ค ๋’ท๋ฐœ๊ณผ ์•ž๋ฐœ ๋ถ€์œ„์—์„œ๋Š” ์ตœ๋Œ€ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์ด ๋‚ฎ๊ณ  ์ค‘๊ฐ„ ๋ฐœ์˜ ๋‚ด์ธก ๋ถ€์œ„์—์„œ๋Š” ๋†’์„ ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค.

II. ์—ฐ๊ตฌ๋ฐฉ๋ฒ•

1. ๋Œ€์ƒ์ž

๋ณธ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ๋ฅผ ์œ„ํ•ด ์ •์ƒ ์„ฑ์ธ 15๋ช…์ด ์ฐธ์—ฌํ•˜์˜€์œผ๋ฉฐ ๋Œ€์ƒ์ž์˜ ์ผ๋ฐ˜์ ์ธ ํŠน์„ฑ์€ Table 1์— ์ œ์‹œํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ๋Œ€์ƒ์ž์˜ ์„ ์ •์กฐ๊ฑด์œผ๋กœ ๋ณดํ–‰ ์žฅ์• , ๋ฐœ ํ†ต์ฆ, ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ๋ฐœ ๊ธฐํ˜•์ด ์—†๋Š” ์ž๋กœ ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ์ „๋‹จ์ง€ ๋ฐ ํ™๋ณด๋ฌผ์„ ์ด์šฉํ•˜์—ฌ ๋Œ€ํ•™๊ต ๋‚ด ์ง€์›์ž๋ฅผ ๋ชจ์ง‘ํ•˜์˜€์œผ๋ฉฐ ๋Œ€์ƒ์ž์—๊ฒŒ ๋ณธ ์‹คํ—˜์— ๋Œ€ํ•ด ์ถฉ๋ถ„ํ•œ ์„ค๋ช…์„ ํ•œ ํ›„ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ ๋™์˜์„œ์— ์„œ๋ช…์„ ํ•œ ์‚ฌ๋žŒ๋“ค ์ค‘ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์— ์ฐธ์—ฌํ•  ๋Œ€์ƒ์ž๋ฅผ ๋ชจ์ง‘ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ๋ณธ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ๋Š” 00๋Œ€ํ•™๊ต ๊ธฐ๊ด€์ƒ๋ช…์œค๋ฆฌ์œ„์›ํšŒ์˜ ์Šน์ธ์„ ๋ฐ›์€ ํ›„ ์‹คํ—˜์„ ์ง„ํ–‰ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค(JIRB-2017111501-01-171218).
Tableย 1
Demographic data of subjects (N=15)
Sex (female/male) Age (yrs) Height (cm) Weight (Kg) BMI (kg/m2)
14/1 22.33ยฑ2.09 174.60ยฑ5.03 74.20ยฑ15.12 24.34ยฑ4.93

2. ์ธก์ •๋„๊ตฌ

๋ณธ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์—์„œ๋Š” ๊ฐ€๋กœ ์•„์น˜ ์ง€์ง€๋Œ€, ๋’ท๊ฟˆ์น˜๋ถ€์™€ ์„ธ๋กœ ์•„์น˜๋ฅผ ์ง€์ง€ํ•˜๋Š” ๋ฐœํ—ˆ๋ฆฌ๋ผˆ ํŒจ๋“œ(metatarsal pad)๋ฅผ ์ง€๋‹Œ ์šฐ๋ ˆํƒ„ ์žฌ์งˆ์˜ ๊ธฐ๋Šฅ์„ฑ ์ธ์†”์„ ์–‘๋ง์— ๊ฒฐํ•ฉํ•œ ์‹คํ—˜์šฉ ์–‘๋ง์„ ์‚ฌ์šฉํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค(Fig. 1). ๊ธฐ์กด ๋‹น๋‡จ ์–‘๋ง์€ ์–‘๋ง ์† ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ๋ฉด์— ์‹ค๋ฆฌ์ฝ˜ ์žฌ์งˆ๋กœ ์–‡๊ฒŒ ํŒจ๋”ฉ๋˜๊ฑฐ๋‚˜ ๋ฉด์‚ฌ ์กฐ์ง์„ ๋‹ฌ๋ฆฌํ•˜๋Š” ๋ฐ˜๋ฉด์— ๋ณธ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์—์„œ ์‚ฌ์šฉ๋˜์–ด์ง€๋Š” ์–‘๋ง์€ ์–‘๋ง ๋‚ด์— ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ์˜ ์••๋ ฅ์„ ํšจ๊ณผ์ ์œผ๋กœ ๋ถ„์‚ฐ์‹œํ‚ค๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•ด ์ฟ ์…˜ ์žˆ๋Š” ์žฌ์งˆ๋กœ ๊ฐ€๋กœ์™€ ์„ธ๋กœ ์•„์น˜๋ฅผ ์ง€์ง€ํ•˜๋Š” ํ˜•ํƒœ์˜ ์ฟ ์…˜์ด ์žˆ๋Š” ์žฌ์งˆ๋กœ ๋””์ž์ธ ์„ค๊ณ„ํ•œ ์ธ์†”์„ ๊ฒฐํ•ฉํ•œ ํ˜•ํƒœ์ด๋‹ค. ์ด์ „ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ๋“ค์—์„œ ์ธ์†”๊ณผ ํ…Œ์ดํ•‘ ๊ธฐ๋ฒ•๊ณผ ๊ฐ™์€ ๋‹ค์–‘ํ•œ ์ค‘์žฌ๋ฅผ ํ†ตํ•ด ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์„ ๋น„๊ตํ•˜๊ณ ์ž ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค(Goo, 2011; Kim ๋“ฑ, 2011; Kim ๋“ฑ, 2012). ๋ณธ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์—์„œ๋Š” ์ตœ๋Œ€ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์„ ์ธก์ •ํ•˜๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•ด Dynamic pressure mapping system (DYNAFOOT2, TECHNO CONCEPT, France)์„ ํ™œ์šฉํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค(Fig. 2). ์ธ์†” ์•ˆ์— 58๊ฐœ์˜ ์••๋ ฅ์„ผ์„œ๊ฐ€ ๋‚ด์žฅ๋˜์–ด ์žˆ์œผ๋ฉฐ ์•ž๋ฐœ(forefoot)์˜ ๋‚ดยท์™ธ์ธก ๋ถ€์œ„, ์ค‘๊ฐ„๋ฐœ์˜ ๋‚ดยท์™ธ์ธก ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ๋’ท๋ฐœ์˜ ๋‚ดยท์™ธ์ธก ๋ถ€์œ„ ์ด 7๊ฐœ ๋ถ€์œ„๋กœ ๋‚˜๋‰˜์–ด ๋ฐ์ดํ„ฐ ์ˆ˜์ง‘์œจ(sampling rate) 100Hz๋กœ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ ๋ณ€ํ™”๋ฅผ ์ธก์ •ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค(Fig. 2). ์ตœ๋Œ€ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ ์ธก์ •๊ธฐ์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ์ธก์ •์ž๋‚ด ์‹ ๋ขฐ๋„๋Š” ์•ž๋ฐœ(๋‚ด์ธก ICC3,1=.91; ์ค‘๊ฐ„ ICC3,1=.97; ์™ธ์ธก ICC3,1=.92), ์ค‘๊ฐ„(๋‚ด์ธก ICC3,1=.93; ์™ธ์ธก ICC3,1=.77), ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ๋’ท๋ฐœ(๋‚ด์ธก ICC3,1=.89, ์™ธ์ธก ICC3,1=.93) ๋ถ€์œ„๋ณ„ ๋ชจ๋‘ ๋†’์•˜๋‹ค.
Fig.ย 1
Design of functional insole (A) and socks combined with functional insole (B).
KSPM_13_01_147_fig_1.tif
Fig.ย 2
Dynamic pressure mapping system (A. Insole sensor and module; B. Measurement areas of pressure).
KSPM_13_01_147_fig_2.tif

3. ์‹คํ—˜๋ฐฉ๋ฒ• ๋ฐ ์ž๋ฃŒ๋ถ„์„

๋ณธ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์—์„œ๋Š” ๊ฐœ๋ฐœ์‚ฌ์—…์˜ ์ฐธ์—ฌ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ๋ณด์กฐ์›์ด ์‹คํ—˜ ์ง„ํ–‰๊ณผ ์ž๋ฃŒ์ˆ˜์ง‘์„ ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ์‹คํ—˜์šฉ ์–‘๋ง๊ณผ ๋Œ€์ƒ์ž ๋ณธ์ธ์˜ ์–‘๋ง ์ฐฉ์šฉ ํ›„ ๋ณดํ–‰ ์‹œ ์ตœ๋Œ€ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์„ ์ข…์†๋ณ€์ˆ˜๋กœ ์ž๋ฃŒ๋ฅผ ์ˆ˜์ง‘ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ๊ณผ๋„ํ•œ ์ตœ๋Œ€ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์€ ๋‹น๋‡จ๋ฐœ์˜ ๋ฐœ๊ฐ€๋ฝ ๊ธฐํ˜• ํ˜น์€ ์‹ ๊ฒฝ๋ณ‘์ฆ์—์„œ์˜ ๊ฐ€์žฅ ์ผ๋ฐ˜์ ์ธ ์›์ธ์ด๋‹ค. ๋ณดํ–‰ ์†๋„๋ฅผ ์ผ์ •ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์œ ์ง€ํ•˜๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•ด ํŽธ์•ˆํ•œ ๋ณดํ–‰์†๋„๋ฅผ 3ํšŒ ์ธก์ •ํ•˜์—ฌ ํ‰๊ท  ๋ณดํ–‰์†๋„๋ฅผ ์‚ฐ์ถœํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ๋Œ€์ƒ์ž๊ฐ€ 15 m ๊ธธ์ด๊ฐ€ ํ™•๋ณด๋œ ๋ณต๋„์—์„œ ๋ณดํ–‰ํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋„๋ก ๋ฏธ๋ฆฌ ๋ณดํญ์˜ ๊ฑฐ๋ฆฌ๋ฅผ ๋งž์ถ˜ ๋‹ค์Œ ์‚ฐ์ถœ๋œ ๋ณดํ–‰ ์†๋„์™€ ๋ฉ”ํŠธ๋กœ๋†ˆ์˜ ์†๋„๋ฅผ ์ผ์น˜์‹œํ‚ค๋ฉด์„œ 5ํšŒ ์ •๋„ ์˜ˆ๋น„๋ณดํ–‰์„ ์‹œ์ผฐ๋‹ค. ์ธ์†” ํ˜•ํƒœ์˜ ์••๋ ฅ์„ผ์„œ๋ฅผ ๋ฏธ๋ฆฌ ์‹ ๋ฐœ์— ๋„ฃ์€ ํ›„ ๋ณธ์ธ ์–‘๋ง ํ˜น์€ ์‹คํ—˜์šฉ ์–‘๋ง์„ ๋„ฃ๊ณ  ๋ฌด์„ ํ†ต์‹  ๋ชจ๋“ˆ์„ ์‹ ๋ฐœ ๋ˆ ๋ถ€์œ„์— ๊ฒฌ๊ณ ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ๋ถ€์ฐฉ์‹œ์ผฐ๋‹ค.
๊ฐ ๋Œ€์ƒ์ž๋“ค์€ ์‹คํ—˜์šฉ ์–‘๋ง๊ณผ ์ž์‹ ์˜ ์–‘๋ง ์ฐฉ์šฉ ์ˆœ์„œ๋ฅผ ๋ฌด์ž‘์œ„๋กœ ํ• ๋‹นํ•˜๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•ด ๋ฒˆํ˜ธ 1(์‹คํ—˜์šฉ ์–‘๋ง) ๋˜๋Š” 2(์ž์‹ ์˜ ์–‘๋ง)๋กœ ๋ถ„๋ฅ˜๋œ ์นด๋“œ๋ฅผ ์ถ”์ฒจํ•˜์—ฌ ์„ ํƒํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ์—ฐ์Šต์„ ํ†ตํ•ด ๋ณดํญ์„ ๋งž์ถ˜ ๊ฐ๊ฐ์˜ ๋Œ€์ƒ์ž๋Š” ๋ฉ”ํŠธ๋กœ๋†ˆ ๋ฐ•์ž์— ๋งž๊ฒŒ ๋ณธ์ธ ์–‘๋ง๊ณผ ๊ธฐ๋Šฅ์„ฑ ์ธ์†”์ด ๊ฒฐํ•ฉํ•œ ์–‘๋ง ์ฐฉ์šฉ ํ›„ ๋ณดํ–‰ํ•˜๋Š” ๋™์•ˆ ๋ฌด์ž‘์œ„๋กœ 5์ดˆ๊ฐ„ 3ํšŒ ๋ฐ˜๋ณต ์ธก์ •ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. 5์ดˆ ๋™์•ˆ ์ขŒยท์šฐ ๋ฐœ ๊ฐ๊ฐ 3๊ฐœ์˜ ์ž…๊ฐ๊ธฐ์—์„œ์˜ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ ์ž๋ฃŒ๊ฐ€ ์ˆ˜์ง‘๋˜์—ˆ์œผ๋ฉฐ ๊ฐ ์กฐ๊ฑด์—์„œ 3ํšŒ ๋ฐ˜๋ณต ์ธก์ •๋œ 3๊ฐœ์ค‘ ๋‘ ๋ฒˆ์งธ ์ž…๊ฐ๊ธฐ์—์„œ์˜ ์ตœ๋Œ€ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์˜ ํ‰๊ท ๊ฐ’์„ ๋Œ€ํ‘œ๊ฐ’์œผ๋กœ ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ์ธก์ •๋œ ์••๋ ฅ ๋ถ„ํฌ ์ž๋ฃŒ๋Š” DYNAFOOT2 ํ”„๋กœ๊ทธ๋žจ์„ ์ด์šฉํ•˜์—ฌ ๋‘ ๊ฐ€์ง€ ๋ณดํ–‰ ์กฐ๊ฑด์—์„œ ๋ฐœ๊ฐ€๋ฝ, ์•ž๋ฐœ, ์ค‘๊ฐ„๋ฐœ, ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ๋’ท๋ฐœ์˜ ๊ฐ ์˜์—ญ์„ ๊ตฌ๋ถ„ํ•˜์—ฌ ์ตœ๋Œ€ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์„ ๋ถ„์„ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ๋Œ€์ƒ์ž ๋ณธ์ธ ์–‘๋ง๊ณผ ์‹คํ—˜์šฉ ์–‘๋ง ์ฐฉ์šฉ ์‹œ ์ตœ๋Œ€ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ ์ฐจ์ด๋ฅผ ๋น„๊ตํ•˜๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•ด ์ง ๋น„๊ต t-๊ฒ€์ •(paired t-test)๋ฅผ ์‹ค์‹œํ•˜์˜€์œผ๋ฉฐ ์œ ์˜์ˆ˜์ค€ p=.05๋กœ ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ์ž๋ฃŒ์˜ ํ†ต๊ณ„์ฒ˜๋ฆฌ๋ฅผ ์œ„ํ•ด Window SPSS 19.0 ํ”„๋กœ๊ทธ๋žจ์„ ์ด์šฉํ•˜์—ฌ ์ฒ˜๋ฆฌํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค.

III. ์—ฐ๊ตฌ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ

Table 2๋Š” ๋‘ ๊ฐ€์ง€ ์กฐ๊ฑด์—์„œ์˜ ๋ณดํ–‰ ์‹œ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ์˜ ๊ฐ ๋ถ€์œ„๋ณ„ ์ตœ๋Œ€ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์˜ ํ‰๊ท ๊ฐ’๊ณผ ๋ณ€ํ™”์œจ์„ ๋ณด์—ฌ์ค€๋‹ค. ๋ณธ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ, ์‹คํ—˜์šฉ ์–‘๋ง(์ค‘๊ฐ„๋ฐœ ๋‚ด์ธก ๋ถ€์œ„=11.64 kg/cm2; ์•ž๋ฐœ ๋‚ด์ธก ๋ถ€์œ„=12.96 kg/cm2)์ด ๋Œ€์ƒ์ž ๋ณธ์ธ ์–‘๋ง(์ค‘๊ฐ„๋ฐœ ๋‚ด์ธก ๋ถ€์œ„=10.30 kg/cm2; ์•ž๋ฐœ ๋‚ด์ธก ๋ถ€์œ„=12.36 kg/cm2) ๋ณด๋‹ค ์ค‘๊ฐ„๋ฐœ๊ณผ ์•ž๋ฐœ์˜ ๋‚ด์ธก ๋ถ€์œ„์—์„œ ์œ ์˜ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ๋” ๋†’์€ ์ตœ๋Œ€ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์„ ๋ณด์—ฌ์ฃผ์—ˆ๋‹ค(์ค‘๊ฐ„ ๋ฐœ ๋‚ด์ธก ๋ถ€์œ„ ๋ณ€ํ™”์œจ=12.97%; ์•ž๋ฐœ ๋‚ด์ธก ๋ถ€์œ„ ๋ณ€ํ™”์œจ=4.86%)(Table 2)(p<.05). ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ์‹คํ—˜์šฉ ์–‘๋ง(๋’ท๋ฐœ์˜ ๋‚ด์ธก ๋ถ€์œ„=12.58 kg/cm2; ์™ธ์ธก ๋ถ€์œ„=12.77 kg/cm2)์ด ๋Œ€์ƒ์ž ๋ณธ์ธ ์–‘๋ง(๋’ท๋ฐœ ๋‚ด์ธก ๋ถ€์œ„=13.48 kg/cm2; ์™ธ์ธก ๋ถ€์œ„=13.36 kg/cm2)๋ณด๋‹ค ๋’ท๋ฐœ์˜ ๋‚ดยท์™ธ์ธก ๋ถ€์œ„ ๋ชจ๋‘ ์œ ์˜ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์ตœ๋Œ€ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์ด ๋‚ฎ์•˜๋‹ค(๋’ท๋ฐœ ๋‚ด์ธก ๋ถ€์œ„ ๋ณ€ํ™”์œจ=-6.71%; ์™ธ์ธก ๋ถ€์œ„ ๋ณ€ํ™”์œจ=-4.42%)(Table 2)(p<.05). ์•ž๋ฐœ์˜ ์ค‘์•™๊ณผ ์™ธ์ธก ๋ถ€์œ„์—์„œ๋Š” ์‹คํ—˜์šฉ ์–‘๋ง๊ณผ ๋Œ€์ƒ์ž ๋ณธ์ธ ์–‘๋ง ์ฐฉ์šฉ ์กฐ๊ฑด ์‚ฌ์ด์—์„œ ์œ ์˜ํ•œ ์ฐจ์ด๊ฐ€ ์—†์—ˆ๋‹ค(Table 2)(p<.05).
Tableย 2
Averaged values (kg/cm2) and change (%) of peak plantar pressures in each condition (Feet=30)
Plantar areas Forefoot Midfoot Hindfoot

Medial Middle Lateral Medial Lateral Medial Lateral
Own hosiery 12.36 (2.74) 14.49 (3.45) 11.84 (3.07) 10.30 (3.38) 13.30 (4.00) 13.48 (1.98) 13.36 (2.20)
Experimental hosiery 12.96 (2.55) 14.32 (3.10) 11.48 (2.45) 11.64 (3.42) 13.81 (3.12) 12.58 (2.09) 12.77 (2.00)
% Change +4.86% -1.17% -3.07% +12.97% +3.84% -6.71% -4.42%
p .03 .57 .40 .00 .19 .00 .01

IV. ๊ณ ์ฐฐ

๋ณธ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์—์„œ๋Š” ๊ธฐ๋Šฅ์„ฑ ์ธ์†”์„ ๊ฒฐํ•ฉํ•œ ์‹œ์ž‘ํ’ˆ ์–‘๋ง์„ ๊ฐœ๋ฐœํ•˜์—ฌ ๋ณดํ–‰ ์‹œ ์ตœ๋Œ€ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์„ ๊ธฐ์กด ์–‘๋ง๊ณผ ๋น„๊ตํ•˜๊ณ ์ž ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ๋งŽ์€ ์ด์ „ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์—์„œ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์„ ์ค„์—ฌ ๋‹น๋‡จ ๊ถค์–‘์„ ์˜ˆ๋ฐฉํ•˜๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•œ ์‹ ๋ฐœ๊ณผ ๋ฐœ ๋ณด์กฐ๊ธฐ์— ๋Œ€ํ•ด ๋ณด๊ณ ํ•˜์˜€์ง€๋งŒ(Bus ๋“ฑ, 2013; Ulbrecht ๋“ฑ, 2014), ๋‹น๋‡จ์šฉ ์–‘๋ง๊ณผ ๊ด€๋ จํ•œ ์„ ํ–‰ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ๋Š” ๋ช‡๋ช‡ ๋˜์ง€ ์•Š๋Š”๋‹ค. ๋‹น๋‡จ์šฉ ์–‘๋ง์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ์ฃผ์š” ์„ฑ๋Šฅ์ง€ํ‘œ๋กœ์„œ ์ตœ๋Œ€ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์„ ์‚ฌ์šฉํ–ˆ๋˜ 4๊ฐœ์˜ ์„ ํ–‰์—ฐ๊ตฌ๊ฐ€ ์žˆ์—ˆ์œผ๋ฉฐ, ๋Œ€๋ถ€๋ถ„์˜ ์ด์ „ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ๋“ค์—์„œ ํŒจ๋”ฉ๋œ ์–‘๋ง์ด ์ตœ๋Œ€ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์„ ๊ฐ์†Œ์‹œ์ผฐ๋‹ค๊ณ  ๋ณด๊ณ ํ•˜์˜€์œผ๋ฉฐ, ์ ์ ˆํ•œ ์‹ ๋ฐœ ๋ฐ ๋ฐœ ๋ณด์กฐ๊ธฐ์™€ ํ•จ๊ป˜ ํŒจ๋”ฉ๋œ ๋‹น๋‡จ์šฉ ์–‘๋ง ์ฐฉ์šฉ์ด ๋ฐœ ๊ถค์–‘ ๋ฐœ์ƒ์„ ์˜ˆ๋ฐฉํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค๊ณ  ์ œ์•ˆํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค(Blackwell ๋“ฑ, 2002; Garrow ๋“ฑ, 2005; Veves ๋“ฑ, 1989; Veves ๋“ฑ, 1990). Veves ๋“ฑ(1990)์€ 10๋ช…์˜ ๋‹น๋‡จํ™˜์ž๋ฅผ ๋Œ€์ƒ์œผ๋กœ 6๊ฐœ์›” ๋™์•ˆ ํŒจ๋”ฉ๋œ ์‹คํ—˜์šฉ ์–‘๋ง์„ ์ฐฉ์šฉํ•˜์—ฌ ์ถ”์ ์กฐ์‚ฌ ํ•œ ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ, 3๊ฐœ์›” ์ง€๋‚˜๊ณ  ๋‚˜์„œ 15.5% ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  6๊ฐœ์›”์—์„œ๋Š” 17.6% ์œ ์˜ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์•ž๋ฐœ ๋ถ€์œ„์˜ ์ตœ๋Œ€ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์ด ๊ฐ์†Œ๋˜์—ˆ๋‹ค๊ณ  ๋ณด๊ณ ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. Garrow ๋“ฑ(2005)์€ ๊ถค์–‘์ด ์—†๋Š” ๋‹น๋‡จ ํ™˜์ž 19๋ช…์„ ๋Œ€์ƒ์œผ๋กœ ๋‹ค์ธต๊ตฌ์กฐ์˜ ์‹คํ—˜์šฉ ์–‘๋ง(multilayered hosiery)์ด ์ผ๋ฐ˜ ์–‘๋ง๊ณผ ๋น„๊ตํ•˜์˜€์„ ๋•Œ ๋ณดํ–‰ ์ค‘ ์•ž๋ฐœ์˜ ์ตœ๋Œ€ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์€ 10.2% ๊ฐ์†Œ์‹œ์ผฐ๋‹ค๊ณ  ๋ณด๊ณ ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. Veves ๋“ฑ(1989)์€ ์‹ ๊ฒฝ๋ณ‘์ฆ์ด ์žˆ๋Š” 27๋ช…์˜ ๋‹น๋‡จํ™˜์ž๋ฅผ ๋Œ€์ƒ์œผ๋กœ ๋Œ€์ƒ์ž ์ž์‹ ์˜ ์–‘๋ง(ํ‰๊ท =14.25 kg/cm2) ํ˜น์€ ๋งจ๋ฐœ ๋ณดํ–‰(ํ‰๊ท =14.08 kg/cm2)๊ณผ ๋น„๊ตํ•˜์˜€์„ ๋•Œ ์‹คํ—˜์šฉ ์–‘๋ง(ํ‰๊ท =10.47 kg/cm2)์ด ๋ฐœํ—ˆ๋ฆฌ๋ผˆ ๋จธ๋ฆฌ ๋ถ€์œ„์—์„œ ์œ ์˜ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์•ฝ 26%์˜ ์ตœ๋Œ€ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์„ ์ค„์˜€๋‹ค๊ณ  ๋ณด๊ณ ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ๋ณธ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์—์„œ ๋Œ€์ƒ์ž ์ž์‹ ์˜ ์–‘๋ง ์ฐฉ์šฉ ์‹œ ์•ž๋ฐœ ์ค‘๊ฐ„ ๋ถ€์œ„์—์„œ์˜ ์ตœ๋Œ€ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์ด 14.49 kg/cm2๋กœ ์ด์ „ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์™€ ์œ ์‚ฌํ•˜์˜€์ง€๋งŒ, ์‹คํ—˜์šฉ ์–‘๋ง๊ณผ ๋น„๊ตํ•˜์˜€์„ ๋•Œ 1.17% ๊ฐ์†Œํ•˜์˜€์œผ๋‚˜ ์œ ์˜ํ•œ ์ฐจ์ด๋Š” ์—†์—ˆ๋‹ค. ๋”ฐ๋ผ์„œ ๋‹น๋‡จ ๊ถค์–‘์˜ ํ˜ธ๋ฐœ ๋ถ€์œ„๋ฅผ ๊ณ ๋ คํ•˜์—ฌ ์ธ์†”์˜ ์•ž๋ฐœ ๋ถ€์œ„์˜ ์„ค๊ณ„์™€ ์žฌ๋ฃŒ์˜ ์„ ํƒ ๋ณ€ํ™”๊ฐ€ ํ•„์š”ํ•  ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค.
์‹ ๊ฒฝ๋ณ‘์ฆ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ๊ถค์–‘์€ ์ฒซ ๋ฒˆ์งธ, ๋‘ ๋ฒˆ์งธ, ์„ธ ๋ฒˆ์งธ ๋ฐœํ—ˆ๋ฆฌ๋ผˆ ๋จธ๋ฆฌ์—์„œ ํ”ํžˆ ๋ฐœ์ƒ๋˜๋ฉฐ, ๋ฐœ๋ชฉ๊ด€์ ˆ์˜ ์ œํ•œ์œผ๋กœ ์ค‘๊ฐ„๋ฐœ์˜ ์•„์น˜๊ฐ€ ๋ฌด๋„ˆ์ ธ ์žˆ๋Š” Charcot ๋ฐœ ๊ธฐํ˜•์— ์˜ํ•ด ๊ถค์–‘์ด ์ค‘๊ฐ„๋ฐœ ๋ถ€์œ„์— ๋ฐœ์ƒ๋  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค(Ctercteko ๋“ฑ, 1981). ๋ฐœ ๊ถค์–‘ ํ˜ธ๋ฐœ ๋ถ€์œ„์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ์ด์ „ ๋ฌธํ—Œ ๊ณ ์ฐฐ์„ ํ†ตํ•ด ๋ณธ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์—์„œ๋Š” ๊ธฐ์กด์˜ ๋‹น๋‡จ์šฉ ์–‘๋ง๊ณผ ๋‹ฌ๋ฆฌ ๋ณดํ–‰ ์‹œ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ์˜ ์••๋ ฅ์„ ๋ถ„์‚ฐ์‹œํ‚ฌ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋„๋ก ์–‘๋ง ๋‚ด์— ๋‚ด์ธก ์•„์น˜ ์ง€์ง€๋Œ€, ๋’ค๊ฟˆ์น˜๋ถ€, ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ํšก ์•„์น˜๋ฅผ ์ง€์ง€ํ•˜๋Š” ๋ฐœ ํ—ˆ๋ฆฌ๋ผˆ ํŒจ๋“œ๋ฅผ ๊ตฌ์„ฑํ•œ ์ธ์†”์„ ๊ฒฐํ•ฉํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ๋ณธ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ, ๋’ท๋ฐœ ๋‚ดยท์™ธ์ธก ๋ถ€์œ„์˜ ์ตœ๋Œ€ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์€ ๋ชจ๋‘ ์œ ์˜ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ๊ฐ์†Œํ•˜์˜€์œผ๋ฉฐ, ์ด๋Š” ๋ณดํ–‰ ์‹œ ๋’ค๊ฟˆ์น˜๋ถ€์˜ ์ฟ ์…˜์— ์˜ํ•ด ๋’ค๊ฟˆ์น˜ ๋‹ฟ๊ธฐ ์‹œ ๋ฐœ์˜ ์ถฉ๊ฒฉ์„ ์™„ํ™”์‹œ์ผœ ๋Œ€๋ถ€๋ถ„์˜ ๋Œ€์ƒ์ž๋“ค์ด ํŽธ์•ˆํ•จ์„ ํ˜ธ์†Œํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ๋ฐ˜๋ฉด์— ์ค‘๊ฐ„๋ฐœ ๋‚ด์ธก ๋ถ€์œ„์—์„œ๋Š” ์ตœ๋Œ€ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์ด ์œ ์˜ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์ฆ๊ฐ€ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ๋ณธ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์˜ ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ์™€ ์œ ์‚ฌํ•œ Farzadi ๋“ฑ(2015)์˜ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์—์„œ ์•„์น˜์ง€์ง€๋Œ€๊ฐ€ ์žˆ๋Š” ๋ฐœ ๋ณด์กฐ๊ธฐ ์ฐฉ์šฉ(์ค‘๊ฐ„๋ฐœ ๋‚ด์ธก=13.6 kPa; ๋ฐœํ—ˆ๋ฆฌ๋ผˆ ๋จธ๋ฆฌ=129.9 kPa)์ด ๋‹จ์ง€ ์‹ ๋ฐœ(์ค‘๊ฐ„๋ฐœ ๋‚ด์ธก=30.2 kPa; ๋ฐœํ—ˆ๋ฆฌ๋ผˆ ๋จธ๋ฆฌ=109.4 kPa)๋งŒ ์ฐฉ์šฉ ํ–ˆ์„ ๋•Œ๋ณด๋‹ค ์ค‘๊ฐ„๋ฐœ์˜ ๋‚ด์ธก๋ถ€์œ„์˜ ์ตœ๋Œ€ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์ด ์œ ์˜ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์ฆ๊ฐ€๋œ ๋ฐ˜๋ฉด์— ๋ฐœํ—ˆ๋ฆฌ๋ผˆ ๋จธ๋ฆฌ์˜ ์ตœ๋Œ€ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์€ ๊ฐ์†Œ๋˜์—ˆ๋‹ค๊ณ  ๋ณด๊ณ ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ์ด๋“ค์€ ์•„์น˜์ง€์ง€๋Œ€๊ฐ€ ์•ž๋ฐœ์— ์œ„์น˜ํ•œ ๋ฐœํ—ˆ๋ฆฌ๋ผˆ ๋จธ๋ฆฌ์˜ ์ตœ๋Œ€ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ ๊ฐ์†Œ ํšจ๊ณผ๋ฅผ ์ผ์œผ์ผฐ๋‹ค๊ณ  ์–ธ๊ธ‰ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ํ•˜์ง€๋งŒ ๋ณธ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ, ๋ฐœํ—ˆ๋ฆฌ๋ผˆ ๋จธ๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ์œ„์น˜ํ•œ ์•ž๋ฐœ์˜ ์ตœ๋Œ€ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์€ ์œ ์˜ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ๋†’๊ฑฐ๋‚˜ ์ฐจ์ด๊ฐ€ ์—†์—ˆ๋‹ค. ํ–ฅํ›„์— ์–‘๋ง๊ณผ ๊ฒฐํ•ฉํ•œ ์ธ์†”์˜ ์•„์น˜์ง€์ง€๋Œ€์˜ ๋†’์ด์™€ ๊ฐ๋„์˜ ๋ณ€ํ™”๋ฅผ ์ฃผ์–ด ์•ž๋ฐœ์˜ ์ตœ๋Œ€ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์„ ์ค„์ผ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋„๋ก ์„ค๊ณ„ ๋ณ€ํ™”๊ฐ€ ํ•„์š”ํ•˜๋‹ค.
์ด์ „ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ๋“ค์—์„œ ๋ฐœํ—ˆ๋ฆฌ๋ผˆ ํŒจ๋“œ๊ฐ€ ๋‹ฌ๋ฆฌ๊ธฐ์™€ ๋ณดํ–‰ ์‹œ ๊ฐ๊ฐ์˜ ๋Œ€์ƒ์ž์—๊ฒŒ ๋ฐœํ—ˆ๋ฆฌ๋ผˆ ํŒจ๋“œ๋ฅผ ๋ฐœํ—ˆ๋ฆฌ๋ผˆ ๋ชธ์ชฝ์— ์œ„์น˜์‹œ์ผœ ์•ž๋ฐœ์˜ ์œ ์˜ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์••๋ ฅ ๊ฐ์†Œ ํšจ๊ณผ๋ฅผ ๋‹ฌ์„ฑํ–ˆ๋‹ค๊ณ  ๋ณด๊ณ ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค(Hayda ๋“ฑ, 1994; Hsi ๋“ฑ, 2005; Nordsiden ๋“ฑ, 2010). ๋น„๋ก ์•ž๋ฐœ์˜ ์ค‘๊ฐ„๊ณผ ์™ธ์ธก๋ถ€์œ„์—์„œ๋Š” ์ตœ๋Œ€ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์€ ๊ฐ์†Œํ•˜์˜€์œผ๋‚˜ ๋‚ด์ธก ๋ถ€์œ„์—์„œ ์••๋ ฅ์€ 4.86% ์œ ์˜ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์ฆ๊ฐ€ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ์ด๋Ÿฌํ•œ ์ฐจ์ด๋Š” ๋Œ€์ƒ์ž๊ฐ„์˜ ์ฐจ์ด, ์‹ ๋ฐœ, ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ๋ฐœํ—ˆ๋ฆฌ๋ผˆ ๋จธ๋ฆฌ์˜ ์œ„์น˜์™€ ๊ฐ™์€ ๋‹ค์–‘ํ•œ ๋ฐฉ๋ฒ•๋ก ์œผ๋กœ ์„ค๋ช…ํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค. Hsi ๋“ฑ(2005)์€ ๋ฐœํ—ˆ๋ฆฌ๋ผˆ ํŒจ๋“œ์— ์˜ํ•ด ์ƒ์„ฑ ๋œ ์ตœ๋Œ€ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์ด ๋ฐœํ—ˆ๋ฆฌ๋ผˆ ๋จธ๋ฆฌ์˜ ๋ฐ”๋กœ ๋ชธ์ชฝ์— ์œ„์น˜ํ•ด ์žˆ์„ ๋•Œ ๋ฐœํ—ˆ๋ฆฌ๋ผˆ ๋จธ๋ฆฌ์˜ ์ตœ์ ์˜ ์••๋ ฅ ๊ฐ์†Œ๋Š” ๋‹ฌ์„ฑํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค๊ณ  ๋ณด๊ณ ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ์ด์ „ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์—์„œ๋Š” ๋Œ€์ƒ์ž ๊ฐœ์ธ์˜ ๋ฐœํ—ˆ๋Ÿฌ๋ผˆ ๋จธ๋ฆฌ ์œ„์น˜์— ๋”ฐ๋ผ ๋ฐœํ—ˆ๋ฆฌ๋ผˆ ํŒจ๋“œ๋ฅผ ์กฐ์ •ํ•˜์—ฌ ์ œ์ž‘ ํ˜น์€ ๊ธฐ์กด ์ธ์†”์— ๋ถ€์ฐฉํ–ˆ์ง€๋งŒ ๋ณธ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์—์„œ๋Š” ์ธ์†”์˜ ์•ž๋ฐœ๋ถ€์œ„์— ์œ„์น˜์‹œ์ผœ ๋Œ€์ƒ์ž๋“ค์˜ ๋ฐœํ—ˆ๋ฆฌ๋ผˆ ๋จธ๋ฆฌ์˜ ํ•ด๋ถ€ํ•™์  ์œ„์น˜์˜ ๋‹ค์–‘์„ฑ์œผ๋กœ ์ตœ์ ์˜ ์œ„์น˜๋ฅผ ๋งŒ์กฑํ•˜์ง€ ๋ชปํ–ˆ๊ธฐ ๋•Œ๋ฌธ์— ์ด์ „ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์™€ ์ฐจ์ด๊ฐ€ ์žˆ์—ˆ๋‹ค๊ณ  ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ๋œ๋‹ค. ๋˜ ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ์ด์œ ๋กœ๋Š” ์ธก์ •์žฅ๋น„์˜ ํ•œ๊ณ„๋กœ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ์˜ ๋ถ€์œ„๋ณ„๋กœ ๋ถ„์„์„ ํ•ด์•ผ๋งŒ ํ•˜์˜€๊ธฐ์— ์ •ํ™•ํ•œ ๋ฐœํ—ˆ๋ฆฌ๋ผˆ ๋จธ๋ฆฌ์—์„œ์˜ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์„ ์ธก์ •ํ•˜์ง€ ๋ชปํ–ˆ๊ธฐ ๋•Œ๋ฌธ์ด๋‹ค. ์•ž๋ฐœ์˜ ๋‚ด์ธก๋ถ€์œ„์˜ ์••๋ ฅ๋ถ€์œ„๊ฐ€ ์ฆ๊ฐ€ํ–ˆ๋˜ ์ด์œ ๋Š” ๋ฐœํ—ˆ๋ฆฌ๋ผˆ ๋จธ๋ฆฌ์˜ ์••๋ ฅ์ด ๊ฐ์†Œ๋˜๋ฉด์„œ ์ถ”์ง„ ์‹œ ์—„์ง€๋ฐœ๊ฐ€๋ฝ์˜ ์••๋ ฅ์ด ๋Œ€์ƒ์ž ์ž์‹ ์˜ ์–‘๋ง์„ ์ฐฉ์šฉํ–ˆ์„ ๋•Œ ๋ณด๋‹ค ์ฆ๊ฐ€๋˜์—ˆ์„ ๊ฒƒ์ด๋ผ ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ๋œ๋‹ค. ํ–ฅํ›„ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์—์„œ๋Š” ์‹ค์ œ ๋ฐœํ—ˆ๋ฆฌ๋ผˆ ๋จธ๋ฆฌ์˜ ์••๋ ฅ์„ ์ธก์ •ํ•˜๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•ด ๋ฐœํ—ˆ๋ฆฌ๋ผˆ ๋จธ๋ฆฌ์— ์ง์ ‘ ์••๋ ฅ ์„ผ์„œ๋ฅผ ๋ถ€์ฐฉํ•˜์—ฌ ์ตœ๋Œ€ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์„ ์ธก์ •ํ•  ํ•„์š”๊ฐ€ ์žˆ๋‹ค.
๋‹น๋‡จ ์–‘๋ง์€ ํ•ญ๊ท , ํ˜ˆ์•ก์ˆœํ™˜, ํ”ผ๋ถ€๊ฑด์กฐ ์˜ˆ๋ฐฉ ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ์ด์Œ์ƒˆ(seamless)๊ฐ€ ์—†์–ด์•ผ ํ•˜๋Š” ์กฐ๊ฑด๋“ค์ด ์žˆ๋‹ค. ์ด์ „ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์—์„œ ๋‹น๋‡จ ์–‘๋ง์˜ ํšจ๋Šฅ์„ ํ‰๊ฐ€ํ•˜๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•ด ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ ๋ณ€ํ™”๋ฟ๋งŒ ์•„๋‹ˆ๋ผ ํ”ผ๋ถ€ ์Šต๊ธฐ์™€ ์˜จ๋„๋ฅผ ์•Œ์•„๋ณด์•˜๋‹ค. Banchellini ๋“ฑ(2008) 6์ฃผ๊ฐ„ ๋ฌด์ž‘์œ„ ์‹œํ—˜์—์„œ ํ”ผ๋ถ€ ์ˆ˜๋ถ„ ํ•จ๋Ÿ‰์„ ๋†’์ด๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•œ ํ”ผ๋ถ€ ์—ฐํ™”์ œ์˜ ๋งˆ์ดํฌ๋กœ ์บก์Š์ด ๋“ค์–ด์žˆ๋Š” ํ•ฉ์„ฑ ํด๋ฆฌ ์•„๋ฏธ๋“œ ์„ฌ์œ ๋กœ ๊ตฌ์„ฑ๋œ ์ƒˆ๋กœ์šด ๋‚˜๋…ธ ๊ธฐ์ˆ ์ด ์ฃผ์ž…๋œ ์–‘๋ง ๋””์ž์ธ์„ ๋ฐœํ‘œํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. Yick ๋“ฑ (2013)์€ 2๋ช…์˜ ๋‹น๋‡จ๋ณ‘ ํ™˜์ž์—์„œ ๋ณดํ˜ธ ์–‘๋ง๋กœ ํ”ผ๋ถ€ ์˜จ๋„์™€ ์Šต๋„๊ฐ€ ์ฆ๊ฐ€ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค๊ณ  ๋ณด๊ณ ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ๋น„๋ก ๋ณธ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์—์„œ๋Š” ๋ฐœ ๊ถค์–‘์˜ ์ฃผ์š” ๋ฐœ์ƒ์š”์ธ์ธ ์ตœ๋Œ€ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์„ ์•Œ์•„๋ณด์•˜์ง€๋งŒ, ํ–ฅํ›„ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์—์„œ๋Š” ๊ฐœ๋ฐœํ•œ ๊ธฐ๋Šฅ์„ฑ ์ธ์†”์„ ๊ฒฐํ•ฉํ•œ ์–‘๋ง์„ ์ฐฉ์šฉ ์‹œ ํ”ผ๋ถ€ ์Šต๊ธฐ์™€ ์˜จ๋„ ๋ณ€ํ™”๋ฅผ ์•Œ์•„๋ณผ ํ•„์š”๊ฐ€ ์žˆ๋‹ค.
๋ณธ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์—์„œ๋Š” ๋ช‡ ๊ฐ€์ง€ ์ œํ•œ์ ์ด ์žˆ๋‹ค. ์ฒซ ๋ฒˆ์งธ๋กœ, ๋‹น๋‡จ ํ™˜์ž๊ฐ€ ์•„๋‹Œ ์ •์ƒ ์„ฑ์ธ์„ ๋Œ€์ƒ์œผ๋กœ ์‹คํ—˜์šฉ ๋‹น๋‡จ์–‘๋ง์„ ์ ์šฉํ•˜์˜€๊ธฐ ๋•Œ๋ฌธ์— ๋ณธ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์˜ ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ๋ฅผ ๋‹น๋‡จ ํ™˜์ž์— ๊ฒŒ ์ผ๋ฐ˜ํ™”ํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์—†๋‹ค๋Š” ์ ์ด๋‹ค. ๋‘ ๋ฒˆ์งธ๋กœ๋Š” ๋‹น๋‡จ์šฉ ์–‘๋ง์˜ ์ฐฉ์šฉ ๊ธฐ๊ฐ„์ด๋‹ค. ๋ณธ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์—์„œ๋Š” ๋‹น๋‡จ์šฉ ์–‘๋ง ์ฐฉ์šฉ ์งํ›„ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์„ ์ธก์ •ํ•˜์˜€์ง€๋งŒ ์žฅ๊ธฐ๊ฐ„์˜ ํšจ๊ณผ๋ฅผ ์•Œ์•„๋ณด์ง€ ๋ชปํ–ˆ๋‹ค. ์„ธ ๋ฒˆ์งธ ์ œํ•œ์ ์œผ๋กœ ๋ณธ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ๋Š” ์ธ์†”๊ณผ ๊ฒฐํ•ฉํ•œ ์–‘๋ง์˜ ์‹œ์ž‘ํ’ˆ์„ ๊ฐ€์ง€๊ณ  ์˜ˆ๋น„์‹คํ—˜ํ•œ ๋‹จ๊ณ„์—ฌ์„œ ์•„์ง๊นŒ์ง€๋Š” ํƒ€ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์— ๋น„๊ตํ•˜์—ฌ ๋ณ€ํ™”์œจ์ด ๋‚ฎ์•„์„œ ์ž„์ƒ์ ์ธ ์˜๋ฏธ๋ฅผ ์ฐพ๊ธฐ๋Š” ํž˜๋“ค๋‹ค. ๋งˆ์ง€๋ง‰์œผ๋กœ ์ƒ์šฉํ™”๋˜๊ณ  ์žˆ๋Š” ๊ธฐ์กด ๋‹น๋‡จ ์–‘๋ง๊ณผ ๋น„๊ตํ•˜์—ฌ ์ตœ๋Œ€ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ๊ฐ์†Œ ํšจ๊ณผ์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ๋น„๊ตํ•˜์ง€ ๋ชปํ–ˆ๋‹ค๋Š” ์ ์ด๋‹ค. ํ–ฅํ›„ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์—์„œ๋Š” ๋‹น๋‡จ ํ™˜์ž๋ฅผ ๋Œ€์ƒ์œผ๋กœ ๊ธฐ์กด ๋‹น๋‡จ ์–‘๋ง๊ณผ ๋น„๊ตํ•˜์—ฌ ์žฅ๊ธฐ๊ฐ„ ์ฐฉ์šฉ ํ›„ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ ๋ณ€ํ™”๋ฟ๋งŒ ์•„๋‹ˆ๋ผ ๋‹น๋‡จ ๊ถค์–‘ ๋ฐœ์ƒ ์ •๋„๋ฅผ ์•Œ์•„๋ณผ ํ•„์š”๊ฐ€ ์žˆ์„ ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค.

V. ๊ฒฐ๋ก 

๋ณธ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์—์„œ๋Š” ๊ธฐ๋Šฅ์„ฑ ์ธ์†”์„ ๊ฒฐํ•ฉํ•œ ๋‹น๋‡จ์šฉ ์–‘๋ง์„ ๊ฐœ๋ฐœํ•˜์—ฌ ๊ธฐ์กด ์–‘๋ง๊ณผ ๋น„๊ตํ•˜์—ฌ ๋ณดํ–‰ ์‹œ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์ตœ๋Œ€ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์„ ๋น„๊ตํ•˜๊ณ ์ž ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ๋ณธ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ, ๊ธฐ๋Šฅ์„ฑ ์ธ์†”๊ณผ ๊ฒฐํ•ฉํ•œ ์‹คํ—˜์šฉ ๋‹น๋‡จ ์–‘๋ง์ด ๋’ท๋ฐœ์˜ ์ตœ๋Œ€ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ์„ ๊ฐ์†Œ์‹œํ‚ค๊ณ  ๋ฐœ์˜ ์•ˆ์ชฝ ์•„์น˜๋ฅผ ์ง€์ง€ํ•˜์˜€์ง€๋งŒ, ์•ž๋ฐœ์˜ ์ตœ๋Œ€ ๋ฐœ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ ์••๋ ฅ ๊ฐ์†Œ ํšจ๊ณผ๋Š” ์—†์—ˆ๋‹ค. ๋”ฐ๋ผ์„œ ๋‹น๋‡จ ํ™˜์ž์˜ ๋‹น๋‡จ ๊ถค์–‘ ๋ฐœ์ƒ ์˜ˆ๋ฐฉ์— ๋„์›€์ด ๋˜๋„๋ก ์ธ์†”์˜ ์•ž๋ฐœ ๋ถ€์œ„์˜ ์„ค๊ณ„์™€ ์žฌ๋ฃŒ ์„ ํƒ ๋ณ€ํ™”๊ฐ€ ํ•„์š”ํ•  ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค.

Acknowledgements

๋ณธ ๋…ผ๋ฌธ์€ ์ค‘์†Œ๊ธฐ์—…์ฒญ์—์„œ ์ง€์›ํ•˜๋Š” 2017๋…„๋„ ์‚ฐํ•™์—ฐํ˜‘๋ ฅ ๊ธฐ์ˆ ๊ฐœ๋ฐœ์‚ฌ์—…(No. C0508835)์˜ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์ˆ˜ํ–‰์œผ๋กœ ์ธํ•œ ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ๋ฌผ์ž„์„ ๋ฐํž™๋‹ˆ๋‹ค.

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